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The magnetic anisotropy of basalt is strongly controlled by plagioclase laths, around which the magnetite grains collect in layers along the planar feldspar faces. Using the Hawaiian example, volcanoes with radial dike configurations must stand in isolation and not nest against one another. The sub-parallel fractures must converge toward a pole and diverge away from it. Because terranes converge and rotate along the thrusts and suture zones of this region, motion vectors are not parallel across the continent but instead form sprays or fans within tectonic domains.

Giant Dike Patterns

If a large-scale uplift was centered over the magma source, its main role was probably to provide a gravitational driving force for a long-range lateral magma transport. When a continent splits, there is often but not always a transient burst of magmatism. Magmatic activity associated with rifting is often correlated with pre-existing faults, transforms, fracture zones etc. Although their magmas follow propagating trans-crustal fractures, mike lobel and cassie steele dating the dikes themselves may not breach the surface along their entire lengths because their magma density is relatively high.

However, the thermal boundary layer is not the same as the lithosphere, which is defined by strength or viscosity and not by thermal gradient. For the most part, such is not the case. On the other hand, the same note issued by a military officer was likely done so out in the field. Vast numbers of new collectors enter the market each and every day and many are most understandably drawn to this arena.

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The formation of plagioclase chains during convective transfer in basaltic magmas. Intraplate seismicity, reactivation of preexisting zones of weakness, alkaline magmatism, and other tectonism post-dating continental fragmentation. Pre-Mississippian artifacts dating to the Archaic and Woodland periods were also found. If the giant dike swarms were fed from an intermediate storage region in the crust, there is a problem of space for a large thousands to millions of cubic kilometers shallow magma chamber. Problems arise if the timescale for melting is much greater than the timescale for eruptive activity.

Some uplift, combined with tectonic stress or lithospheric weakening, may be the condition required before any magma can escape. In particular, we describe how giant dikes may be tectono-magmatic features of lithospheric plates, not necessarily resulting from deep-mantle plumes. Large volumes of magma involved in the flood basalt events pose several mechanical problems.

Some diverging dike swarms, however, may have formed without a broad lithospheric uplift. In the source region of flood basalts, there is obviously a super- or at least near- solidus temperature. However, the picture changes once magma leaves the source region and approaches the sub-solidus by some definitions base of the lithosphere. He reported that the Bat Creek Stone was found under the skull of the south-facing skeleton.

Neutral buoyancy and the structure of mid-ocean ridge magma reservoirs. He may have been a hundred miles or more from the nearest depositary agent and didn't bother to collect interest. It follows that the extensional stress in the crust after the dike emplacement may have been larger than prior to the dike emplacement. Dikes may or may not be parallel to the rift valley trends, but they are perpendicular to rift extension directions.

If melt ponds at a density interface, it will not have any tendency for subsequent vertical propagation. Surface stresses associated with arrested dykes in rift zones.

You may rest assured the Banks and other large companies holding these notes did. Rift basins of Early Mesozoic age, in Horton, J. He concludes that this does not prove the stone is a hoax, but that there was in fact a source for the word divider early enough to have been used by a hoaxer.

Very long sets of dikes do not remain parallel but instead diverge as they propagate, because extensional stress orientations vary across large distances in the spherical shell of the lithosphere. In a reply in the same issue, P. One feature we may all agree on is that dikes form from fluid magmas under pressure that follow or create propagating fractures, which have orientations controlled by lithospheric stresses.

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Hotspot tracks and the early rifting of the Atlantic. Non-radial patterns of fissure dikes are most common for flood basalt provinces, not radiating giant dikes. Long-term existence of large reservoirs of melt at the base of the lithosphere e.

Not relying on rumors, Thomas actually examined many of the artifacts in question. Where are they on other sides of the focus points? This discussion focuses on geographic patterns, magma parameters, and associated physical features that provide evidence and arguments about the origins of giant dikes. This implies that dikes must drain sizeable pools of magma.

These are examples where underlying lithospheric stresses, not those of high volcanoes, influenced dike orientation. The debate was revived in by J. Theoretical modeling and field observations help us to understand the essential physics of magma migration from its source to its final destination in the upper lithosphere. Uplift is not one of the requirements for radiating dikes. Given small melt fractions, basalts may migrate upwards via porous flow in a viscous matrix.

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The tectono-magmatic history of the area is also important. None are connected to a progressive volcanic chain. Some so-called radial dike swarms are actually sub-parallel to or sub-perpendicular to rifted margins. However, for silicate rocks strength is a function of temperature.

This is plate tectonics, not plume tectonics. This will obviously not be apparent in sets of shorter dikes. Ponding below a permeability barrier is probably the only option, similar to a sub-axial magma lens at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges.